The first one that appears to be a no-go area for teacher-training institutions is fundamental classroom management for student learning benefit. Now the last three words here are key. Classroom management for discipline is completely different and as such requires a completely different skill-set and hopefully does not exist in theory or practice anymore. Classroom management for student learning benefit is highly complicated, essential and requires significant attention even when one has been in the classrooms for many years and exposed to literally thousands of students.
Aorere College is very fortunate to have a number of outstanding provisionally registered teachers (including some brilliant TeachFirst teachers) who have literally had to learn on the job effective, affirmative classroom management. One of them, now in their second year and still enthusiastic and passionate about the students and profession, only last week mentioned that they had received only one hour of classroom management "training" and that this was of the very "old-school" nature. But why is it these training appears to so over-looked by teacher-training institutions? Having talked to a number of recent graduates, there appears to be an over-focus on planning of theories of teaching without consideration of the fact that students won't always stick to the plan and due to individual learning dispositions, tend to learn somewhat astray to the teaching intended. With experience, classroom management for student learning benefit becomes almost second nature through working back from the intended students outcomes (academic and otherwise) and not from the lesson plan forward. In my opinion as it was in my day, there appears to still exist an over-influence on lesson planning instead of unit planning and on teaching over learning.
When I was being trained, I was assessed on the quality of my lesson planning to the extent that I had to allocate resources, work and intentions for every 10 minute interval. Knowing what I know now, this was and is completely pointless. In working successfully with high school students in 2016, I have a learning intent in place that more often than not extends over more than one lesson and my resources and time allocations are extremely flexible and responsive to student progress (as they need to be). For trainees to be effective teachers, they need to be trained to prepare students for learning over submission. Student noise to us old-timers is encouraged as is student movement and collaboration. The reason so many teachers avoid group-work or do it but for little gain (academic or otherwise) is that the necessary pre-coaching of students is often glossed-over and given the briefest of coverage. One of the best exponents of group-work in the classroom I have ever seen always believed that it takes 4-5 weeks of preparation for group-work to be an effective learning context for all students concerned.
Theory of content and learning is important and is a non-negotiable element of teacher training but theory into practice is where trainees and teacher really learn, embed and then reflect. Failure to ensure trainees are sufficiently exposed and confident in genuine student learning environments not only sets these individuals up to fail but even importantly does likewise to the students in their midst.